Advantages of Attending Playgroup for Kids

Playgroup is a chance for parents to let their kids experience various activities which they might not allow or manage at home. Besides play, children meet other children of same age, sit, share and empathize with others.  Fun playgroups for children are also safe and healthy environment which foster great learning opportunities. Some key advantages of sending kids to playgroup are:

Development of social skill sets

Every child has a different social needs, some like to live in isolation whereas others love to socialize with others. You as a parent need to accept the nature of your kid. Children should not be forced to do things which they dislike. Here the role of playgroup comes into play. Kids meet, see and follow others, and in doing so, they learn to open with other and develop affinity towards one another.

Children between the age of 1 to 3 gets social with other people because they are exploring people outside their comfort zone. When they reach age 5, they get along with other kids of their age and learn from their experiences.

Building social emotional confidence

For a child, home is a place where he/she is free to exercise anything he/she desires. They get the sense of stability and attachment from home when living with parents, siblings, grandparents etc. when kids come to playgroup, they interact with caretakers and teachers in a same manner they interact at home, thus share the same home like experience and develop emotional bonding with them.

Enhancing physical activities

Children love to play. The joy of play increases to many folds when they come to playgroup and realize in multiple activities they can involve themselves. The activities could be indoor as well as outdoor.

At home, there may be some limitations, in terms of space, toys, companions etc but in playgroup one gets a chance to enjoy and do everything. Ranging from singing, playdough, jumping, learning through puzzles, music, body movements etc, children are free to enjoy to the fullest.

Allowing creativity and out of the box thinking

Creativity and out of the box thinking allows children to move beyond their boundaries. As discussed in the topic above, home is a structured place where kids may and may not allow some leverage. Whereas in playgroup, there are no boundaries and unstructured environment, whereas children are free to exercise anything.

They develop motor skills when play with puzzles, strengthen their muscles when play outside. So it is good for kids belonging to any area. Children develop their brain activities in the first three years, their mind functions well and help in their personal and professional grooming.

Importance of play role

With play role, children get a chance to engage in daily life activities. When a child acts in certain role, he/she learns to practice that skill in later life, like changing tyre, becoming teacher and managing different chores etc. Kids also get a chance to practice problem solving abilities and look for alternate options for any given problem.

Playgroup is like a school with high interactivity and minimal discipline. Children get a chance to explore their environment and learn from others. Also it is a chance for encouraging out of the box thinking which enhance their brain activities. It helps parents to prepare their kids for school life as well.

Finding the Right Playgroup for Children in Singapore

If you have a small child who is below 4 years old and you plan to get him/her enrolled in preschool but are a little apprehensive as how would he/she will react or behave, then you have reached at the right spot. The article is going to help you in choosing the best playgroup option available in Singapore for your children.

Parent-Accompanied Playgroup for Kids

This particular playgroup has classes for parents along with their children. So, if you are not comfortable leaving your child alone in class, then this interactive session build school is good for you. It involves learning with sensory driven practices and experiences, mainly story based and music, creative exercises as well as few singing hours. Besides indoor, some outdoor activities are also part of the school.

Another thing good about this curriculum is that they allow child to experiment by being messy in playground and other activities. So it’s an amalgamation of both discipline as well as messy environment. The preferred age limit for the school is 6 months to 36 months and frequency of class is once a week. Fee estimate is around $480 for total of 12 weeks’ classes.

Learning with Phonics

The learning processes these days is quite different as compared to what school used to teach some years back. Phonic is a new concept which many schools have adopted because it is useful, easily memorable and very handy for children to understand. Phonics system was originated in the UK and is full of fun based activities, including linguistics and musical learning.

Also social interaction, rhymes, playgroup activities, and body movement are also part of these schools. Children are expected to spend two-hours in a class which is spread over 5 days in a week. The course is for children of ages 18 months to 36 months and estimated fee is $200 per month.

Time to enhance a Child’s Motor Skills

Some playgroups offer activities which enhances motor skills because children get a chance to interact with other mates, socialize and explore each other’s environment. Parents can also accompany children in these schools due to short duration of 1.5 hours only. Frequency of classes is 5 days a week for children of age 12 months to 22 months. Total fee for courses are $50 for each session.

Programs for Kids of Different Ages

If you have kids of different age, then some schools offer different programs for different age groups. Main emphasize is on socializing and exploring surrounding environment. Even toys are also available for kids to play and learn along with some learning tools like music instruments, singing, craft and dance. The duration of the course is between 1.5 hours to 2 hours for five days a week. Children of age group 18 months to 36 months are recommended for the school. Fee charges is around $170 per month.

There are many children playgroups in Singapore offering different activities for kids belonging to different ages. Parents can visit each place to decide which school suits considering age and mental capabilities of their children. Duration and fee of each school is also different.

Important Things You Need to Know About Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a limiting condition that makes it difficult for children to read and understand. Contrary to popular belief, the condition is not a result of a lack of intelligence or visual issue. Research has shown that the condition is a neurological one. What this means is that a person with the condition process information in a different way. This makes it difficult for them to spell, read, and decode the meaning of words. 

If your child has the condition, you should act quickly, as early treatment will help keep the condition at bay. As you likely know, there are a lot of treatment options that promise to address the condition for good. Before picking any of them, there are some important things you first need to know about dyslexia in children. Want to find out what these things are? If yes, you are going to benefit from this article. 

The following article by Yvette Brazier sheds light on some key things you need to know about dyslexia. 

What you need to know about dyslexia

Dyslexia is a condition that makes it hard to learn to read and learn. It happens when there is a problem with the way the brain processes graphic symbols. The problem in dyslexia is a linguistic one, not a visual one. Dyslexia in no way stems from any lack of intelligence. People with severe dyslexia can be brilliant. Read more here.

After reading that information-rich article, you surely now have a clear picture of what the condition is really like, and some signs that a child has it, as well as some effective ways to treat it. If you want to learn more about how the condition is diagnosed in kids and adults, you are going to find the next article interesting. 

The following article by Mayoclinic is basically a how-to- guide to diagnosing and treating dyslexia. 


There’s no single test that can diagnose dyslexia. Several factors are considered, such as your child’s development, educational issues, and medical history. The doctor will likely ask you questions about these areas and want to know about any conditionRead more here.

The above article has certainly brought light on some key methods that dyslexia is diagnosed in little children, as well as some easy things parents can do to help their kid with the condition. The article also brings to light some key things adults living with the condition can do to overcome the disability. If you just found out that your kid has the condition and you don’t have the slightest clue on how to go about addressing his condition, you are going to benefit from the next article. 

The following article by The Understood Team unveils some proven treatments for kids with dyslexia. 

Treatment for Kids with Dyslexia

Finding out your child has dyslexia can be difficult to take in. You may worry about what it means for your child’s future. But knowing what’s behind your child’s reading challenges makes it easier to find a treatment that can help. Read more here.

You likely now know a handful of proven therapies that can help kids with dyslexia. You also now know a few things about the best treatments for kids who have dyslexia and depression, anxiety, and ADHD. So, if you can follow the intricate steps of these treatment programs, your child’s condition is going to improve. 

Final note 

Knowledge is power. Without it, we often end up making laughable mistakes and arrive at mistaken conclusions. The same is true when helping kids with dyslexia. The right knowledge will go a long way in helping them recover and read properly.

So, if your kid has dyslexia, take prompt action to first find out the type he has. Doing this will help you determine the best treatment for him. 

Also, consult a specialist who has successfully handled several cases like yours in the past. You won’t regret it. 

Choosing the Right Kindergarten Preschool for Your Child

Singapore is full of many preschools available but it is imperative for the parents to choose one that best fits their child’s needs and requirements. The right school will cater to the child’s holistic growth and help him or her prosper not only in that school but for years to come.

A good kindergarten is responsible for creating the fundamental basics of a child that molds and shapes him to the adult that he would eventually become. Read more here:

So in order to choose the right school for their children, parents should be vary of the following considerations:

Subjects being taught

The curriculum that is chosen for the children should be analyzed by keeping in mind that it should cater for the emotion, logical and physical needs of the child that will help him prosper for years to come. Therefore, the subjects being taught should encompass all these points. On the other hand, the parents must also see how these topics are being taught. At this age there is no sitting still strategies that can help children learn. Rather, at this tender age, children learn through play. Activities designed while keeping this approach in mind work best with children. Preschool is the first step in a child’s life, it must be chosen wisely.


This is meant by the school timings that best fit a child’s requirement. Sometimes the parents work afternoon or morning and those are the times they wish their children to be away with an adult, learning. Therefore, in Singapore there are many schools that have either full day or half day solutions. A kindergarten school that best fits this scenario ought to be chosen.

Locality and rate

While choosing a kindergarten school one must make sure that it is under the budget of what one earns. Therefore, the parents must look for a kindergarten school that is not only within the budget but near too. Children are especially vulnerable to getting themselves hurt at this age. Although schools are well equipped with dealing with such emergency situations, it does not hurt to find a school that is near so that any unforeseen circumstance involving children can be quickly taken care of. If the location is near, the extra cost of fuel can also be minimized.

Approach of the school

Every school has their own set of approaches that they demark on the students. A school that teaches comradeship, kindness and a wise philosophy must be chosen for the eager little learners. Also, these values should align with the ones that are being taught in homes too.

Child’s personality

An environment that suits the personality of the child will help him growing in all prospects and areas. On the other hand, if there is no alignment of the system with the child, the learning will be impaired and the child will suffer both emotionally and intuitively.

Schools in Singapore offer parents an opportunity to walk in and have orientations. During this time, it is the parents to look for these important points before they make a decision of admitting their child in that school. Keeping this is mind that this will go a long way in their personalities and outcomes.

Everything You Need to Know About ADHD in Children

ADHD, which stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, is a popular health condition that many children in Singapore are diagnosed with. Children with this condition are usually hyperactive, have impulsive behavior, and find it difficult to sustain attention. 

While the condition poses no serious threat to the physical health of a child, it inhibits their spontaneous response and limits their mental performance. This, in turn, makes it difficult for them to follow instructions, focus on important tasks, and do as they are told. Because of this, they are often criticized and labelled as troublemakers. 

Granted, the condition doesn’t have a cure, but there are many things parents can do to manage and prevent it from getting worse. We are going to be looking at some of these things in this article. Before we dive right into that, we will take a close look at what child Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is all about. 

The following article by Mayoclinic shed light on some important things you probably didn’t know about ADHD in children. 

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Read more here.

The above article has certainly brought to light some intriguing things about ADHD that you were likely clueless of like, some condition that may co-exist with it, proven ways to prevent it, and how the condition makes life difficult for kids and adults. As you likely know, there is a lot of information about ADHD on the internet. While some are true and have scientific backing, others are false and baseless. 

The following article by Helpguide debunks some popular myths about ADHD in children. 

ADHD in Children

It’s normal for children to occasionally forget their homework, daydream during class, act without thinking, or get fidgety at the dinner table. But inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are also signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)- Read more here

You are definitely now abreast with some myths surrounding ADHD like, medication is the best treatment option for the condition. You also now know what the condition really looks like and what to expect from kids suffering from it. Read the next article carefully to learn some proven ways to address the condition. 

The following article by Webmd unveils some tried and tested ways to address ADHD.

ADHD in Children

Though your child may have some symptoms that seem like ADHD, it might be something else. That’s why you need a doctor to check it out. There is no specific or definitive test for ADHD. Instead, diagnosing is a process that takes several steps and involves gathering a- Read more here.

Surely, you now know some tried and tested non-drug treatments for ADHD. You also now know the side effects of some drugs for ADHD. If you plan on taking the medical approach (Use medications), it is wise you consult your doctor or a specialist before purchasing any drug. 

Final note 

ADHD, which is a neurodevelopment disorder, is not something that should be taken lightly, as it can deteriorate and become worse. Yes, the condition doesn’t have a cure, but early diagnosis and treatment will help a lot. 

Knowing the symptoms of the condition will help you identify the condition on time and seek medical help. 

Keep in mind that medications aren’t always the best treatment option, as they sometimes have side effects. Non-medical treatments are by far the best ways to address the condition, as they are very effective. 

Extensive Educational Programs Offered in Singapore’s Kindergartens

Kindergartens now offer a wide range of programs for meeting learning requirements of kids of all ages. The division of the programs have been done keeping in mind the age bracket of kids and their mental capabilities. There are three programs which are being offered by many Singaporean kindergartens, mainly Playgroup to Kindergarten 2, from 6 months to 36 months’ program and then from 3 years to 8 years’ program.

Playgroup to Kindergarten 2 Programs

The program consists of either complete day or half day package. It consists of number of activities, which includes educational, entertainment as well as special skill development practices for nurturing child brain and mental capabilities.

Playgroup Programs

These programs are especially for kids from the age one and half till 2.5 years old. Curriculum includes reading and logical thinking activities along with special activities for communication skills development and creativity enhancement. Phonics are yet another mean with which kids get a chance to promote their story, science and music skills along with arts and crafts activities.

Apart from these, multi-sensory discovery activities enable kids towards development of their sensory skills like language, storytelling, crafts as well as games.

From 6 Months to 36 Months Program

This program is based upon building confidence and enhancing discovery abilities in kids, so they learn new and innovative things every day.

Early Starters Programs

In the early starter programs, main emphasize is laid on logical thinking, coordination activities, affinity towards music, knowledge of the world as well as innovative learning abilities. With the help of music and rhymes, kids get a chance to learn communication skills and other auditory, visual and tactile senses. Kids also learn social skills which prepare them for better coordination and balancing learning. Role of parents is also crucial at this stage, as kids develop self-esteem, sharing and cooperation abilities while interacting with other people.

From 3 Years to 8 Years Programs

These programs have been devised keeping in view the literacy requirements of kids from 3 years to 8 years of age.

Normally at this stage, kids are considered to have much knowledge about their surroundings. There are basic 8 mastery levels designed for kids for this age bracket. There are no caregivers at this stage and kids learn to work independently without any professional help. The already discussed methods above prepare the kids well for this level, thus they are confident in carrying out their routine activities without much help.

Here kids get a chance to make words from spelling and are also able to blend different phonic sounds. By this time, they also become fluent in reading and writing and their grammar along with comprehension skills are much developed. Creative writing is also easy for kids to do and they can do poetry, write reports, factual reports and character studies.

Final Say

It is pertinent to mention that the very first program which is designed for playgroup kids is called preschool program because it accommodates kids of that specific age, whereas the other two programs are counted under the bracket of enrichment, due to vast library of programs and curriculum being offered in both.

A Definitive Guide to Parenting a Kid with ADHD

Did you recently find out that your kid has ADHD? Are you clueless about the nature of the condition and don’t know the most effective ways to address it? Do you want to help your child reach his potential even if he has ADHD? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you are going to benefit from this article, as it is comprehensive and contains practical tips and proven advice to help parents address Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

Regardless of the nature of your child’s ADHD, you should not reprimand him for his behavior. Instead, you should praise and reward him when does something good. It is still important for you to set up an effective disciplinary system that will help him see the consequences of certain actions.

Before you start doing all these, you need to be absolutely sure that your child has ADHD. Read the next article carefully to learn about some common signs of ADHD.

The following article by The Healthline Editorial Team unveils some 14 eye-opening signs of ADHD.

14 Signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that can affect your child’s success at school, as well as their relationships. The symptoms of ADHD vary and are sometimes difficult to recognize. Read more here.

After reading that eye-opening article, you likely now know some 14 signs of ADHD you probably didn’t know of. If your child is presently exhibiting any of these signs, then you should visit a professional for help. The specialist will help determine the type of ADHD your child has and the best ways to address it.

The following article by Nimh sheds light on a few important things parents with kids suffering from ADHD need to know.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Read more here.

You likely now know a thing or two about the various studies on the condition that was done a while back. You also now know some effective tips to treat the condition and even prevent it. If you are looking for a comprehensive guide that contains basically everything there is to know about parenting kids with ADHD, then the next article is for you.

The following article by Webmd is basically a how-to guide to parenting kids with ADHD.

Parenting a Child with ADHD

Parents often criticize children with ADHD for their behavior — but it’s more helpful to seek out and praise good behavior instead of punishing or taking away things for bad behavior. Ways to do this includeRead more here.

The above article has certainly brought to light some easy but effective things parents can do to help a child who has ADHD. You also now know some proven strategies that can help create order in their life, get things done quicker, build lasting relationships, and perform well academically.

Final note

Raising a kid with ADHD is by no means a walk in the park. Parents have to go above and beyond in their efforts to ensure that their kids perform well academically and socially.

Most times, a behavior modification plan may do the trick and help a child with the condition get things done quicker, take responsibility, stay on a schedule, and make friends. Bear in mind that these changes aren’t going to happen overnight. Time and effort is required.

As a parent, you should never give hope on your kid even when things aren’t working the way you thought it will. Try to be patient and positive. Things may get better in the long run.

Should you send your kid to the preschool

Should you send your kid to the preschool?

For ages, mothers have been considering staying at home for their kids just so they do not have to send their kids to preschool. Will it be safe? Do preschools actually harm kids? Is it worth sending my kids there? These questions have haunted parents for a really long time.

Despite the many Pre schools in Singapore Chiltern House has stood out among the rest. They have consistently scored high on the criteria as follows. You should look at curriculum, quality of teachers and most importantly, the general ‘feel’ of the centre which you should get for yourself by going down to the centre. Check out Chiltern House here today.

The following article by Amelia Gentleman on addresses such questions.

The great preschool debate

“The study unleashed what he describes as a global “firestorm of controversy”, and, he believes, did enduring damage to his career. The suggestion that babies suffered by being taken from their parents and handed to carers, usually in preschools, made uncomfortable reading both for mothers considering returning to work and for policymakers, eager to encourage them back into the workforce.” Read More Here!

Parents usually struggle to send their kids to daycare because of these findings. Childcare experts suggest that sending the little ones to daycare can put them under emotional stress as they are separated from their parents. This often makes parents skeptical about whether they should enroll their kid in a preschool. However, even though kids might feel emotional, their cognitive skills enhance after going to daycare. Another angle to this debate is the fact that employers push mothers back to work which, in turn, gives a boost to the daycare business. The government also has to decide whether they should encourage daycare or emphasize more on giving paid leaves to mothers. Some findings also suggest that kids who attend daycare are found to be more aggressive as adults. Another piece by Glosswitch on newstatesman discusses the effects of sending kids to daycare.

Are we harming our kids by sending them to preschool?

Swedish sociologist Jonas Himmelstrand believes that when children start preschool under the age of three, they risk suffering “more mental health problems and difficulties at school”. On the day the Times ran a report on this, my own three-year-old – who’s been at preschool since he was nine months old – decided to behave like a total sod. Read More Here!

Although there are some theories about the children being moody and angrier when they attend the preschool, it cannot be denied that there is nothing wrong in sending kids to daycare. For most of the working women, daycare is the only viable solution. For what it’s worth, daycare also helps the kids in learning things they would not at home. When kids socialize with others of their age it becomes easy for them to develop their skills. Mothers do not essentially have to feel guilty as they are only doing what is right for their kids. Leaving their jobs and being home harms and jeopardizes their careers. There are certainly pros and cons but one has to make a decision as per their unique requirement. An article by Carol Loy on the talks about the benefits of preschool rhymes for kids.

How do preschool rhymes benefit the children?

Do you know that Incy Wincy Spider can be a toddlers (and parent’s) best friend? And other preschool rhymes like 10 Little Indians can also be your friends too! Music such as preschool rhymes can help benefit a child’s learning and development; what’s more, preschool rhymes tend to stick with us even as we grow older – people can usually remember common ones like Incy Wincy Spider and Twinkle Twinkle Little Stars, or at least remember bits of Jack and Jill. Read More Here!

Learning preschool rhymes at daycare is known to be really helpful for kids. It helps them develop strong literacy and language skills. Kids end up learning numeracy and their vocabulary enhances. Music plays a very important role in the kid’s lives and it boosts the self-esteem as well as confidence of the kids. Moreover, according to researches, childhood is a phase of rapid development which is why it helps when kids are exposed to music early on. Thus, preschool rhymes are not only fun to learn and listen but also help in the motor skills of the kids and enable them to plan.

As a parent, you can participate in the kid’s development by singing along with the child. You may also engage in their learning by constantly introducing new rhymes to them which teaches them concepts like colors, shapes and numbers.

How to assess and compare inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation of ratings: an exemplary analysis of mother-father and parent-teacher expressive vocabulary rating pairs.

This report has two main purposes. First, we combine well-known analytical approaches to conduct a comprehensive assessment of agreement and correlation of rating-pairs and to dis-entangle these often confused concepts, providing a best-practice example on concrete data and a tutorial for future reference. Second, we explore whether a screening questionnaire developed for use with parents can be reliably employed with daycare teachers when assessing early expressive vocabulary. A total of 53 vocabulary rating pairs (34 parent–teacher and 19 mother–father pairs) collected for two-year-old children (12 bilingual) are evaluated. First, inter-rater reliability both within and across subgroups is assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Next, based on this analysis of reliability and on the test-retest reliability of the employed tool, inter-rater agreement is analyzed, magnitude and direction of rating differences are considered. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients of standardized vocabulary scores are calculated and compared across subgroups. The results underline the necessity to distinguish between reliability measures, agreement and correlation. They also demonstrate the impact of the employed reliability on agreement evaluations. This study provides evidence that parent–teacher ratings of children’s early vocabulary can achieve agreement and correlation comparable to those of mother–father ratings on the assessed vocabulary scale. Bilingualism of the evaluated child decreased the likelihood of raters’ agreement. We conclude that future reports of agreement, correlation and reliability of ratings will benefit from better definition of terms and stricter methodological approaches. The methodological tutorial provided here holds the potential to increase comparability across empirical reports and can help improve research practices and knowledge transfer to educational and therapeutic settings.

The mommy brain [electronic resource] : how motherhood makes us smarter

“Paperback edition first published in 2005 by Basic Books.”

Includes bibliographical references (p. 245-269) and index

Smarter than we think — Honey, the kids shrunk my brain! — The nearly uncharted wilderness of mothers’ brains — Perception : the expanding realm of a mother’s senses — Efficiency : how necessity is the mother of multitasking — Resiliency : reducing stress, enhancing smarts — Motivation : how mothers summon courage & ambition — Emotional intelligence : how motherhood teaches social smarts — Mr. Moms & other altruists : paybacks to proxies — Better than business school : mothers’ added value at work — Smarter than ever : why motherhood today takes a lot of brains — Re-engineering the mommy track : ideas from some brainy travelers — Political drive : the magic of motivated mothers — Neuroscientists know best : 10 tips to make the most of your mommy brain

Electronic reproduction

Life And Message Of The Holy Mother by Swami Shantatmananda

Sri Sarada Devi, known to millions as Sri Sri Maa or Holy Mother, is the spiritual consort of Sri Ramakrishna. Born on 22 December 1854 in the village of Jayrambati, she was married to Sri Ramakrishna, according to the custom prevalent in India in those days, at the age of six. At the age of eighteen, she went to Dakshineswar. Sri Ramakrishna worshiped her as the Divine Mother and taught her how to discharge the duties of life and at the same time lead an intensely spiritual life.

After the Master’s passing away, she played a significant role as the spiritual teacher and universal Mother in the development of the Ramakrishna Movement. By her life of sacrifice, forbearance, service and motherly love, which knew no distinctions of caste, creed, race or wealth, she has set a shining ideal for women all over the world.

Teachers’ Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective communication. In other words, one can say that without grammar one can communicate little; however, without vocabulary, one can communicate nothing. This, in turn, results in the necessity of placing emphasis on vocabulary learning activities in language learning and teaching. However, as there are no clear-cut answers as to which tools or strategies to learn vocabulary are the best and most teachers have different beliefs about vocabulary learning, they generally follow the activities suggested in the course book in a slave like manner. Vocabulary teaching and learning require several strategies to be put into use and supported by technology, which empowers the process. However, language instructors do not always benefit from computer resources available on CDs or the Internet. As the results of the survey among 80 language instructors show, they are not aware of the opportunities that technology provides to them. Moreover, word lists and flashcards are still the widely used materials used for teaching vocabulary, while online glossing and wikis are rarely used.

IJLL The Role Of Mother Tongue In The Process Of Li

Translating literary works requires some knowledge more than the mere proficiency in both source and target languages, which is undoubtedly the primary necessity of this task. Socio-cultural issues ongoing within a literary text and the aura of the work are to be considered in addition to literary techniques and figurative language at work. Accordingly, the translator is attempting to convey all the emotion of the text thoroughly. Considering the connotation of words and their psychological associations, the reader feels more indulgence and affinity to the work. This research intends to find out how the difference in understanding the mother tongue and the literature of the second language affects the quality of its translation. Ninety percent of the students of English Literature in the University of Tabriz speak their local languages rather than Persian, which is the official language of Iran. Upon exposure to the literature of their mother tongue and the second language, the difference in their motivation level, comprehension of the source text, connection to the aura, a deeper transference of thoughts and emotions, precision of selected equivalents, personal satisfaction of the translator and the joy of translating is notable in their translations.